This lecture by Dr. Nandita G. Das occurred on Monday, August 30th
Required reading: Solution Phenomenon handout.
Understand the basic types and characteristics of solution formulations in pharmaceutical practiceEdit
- Gas in Gas
- liquid in liquid
- solid in solid
- gas in liquid
- solid in gas
- solid in liquid - most common
Define the various types of solutes and solvents, and their interactions with each otherEdit
- Hydrophilic, lipophobic, "water loving" solvents dissolve ions, polar compounds, and solutes with hydrogen bonds. The solute - solvent interactions are generally strong.
- Hydrophobic, lipophylic "water hating" solvents dissolve hydrocarbons and other similar moieties. The solute - solvent interactions are generally weak.
- Hydrophilic/Hydrophobic solvents (like alcohols, acids, and amides) have both properties. Overall solubility depends on which characteristics dominate in the molecule.
Describe the thermodynamic process behind the formation of solutionsEdit
Understand the factors affecting solubility and dissolution rateEdit
Understand the basics behind calculations involved in solubility and dissolution rate processesEdit
What physicochemical factors affect solubility, dissolution and permeability, and how do they affect drug absorption?Edit
What are the various barriers in oral drug delivery?Edit
Why is the activity coefficient important for aqueous solubility?Edit
Is dissolution rate important in making the decision whether a drug is formulated as immediate release or controlled release? Why?Edit
Why is a formulator concerned about BCS in preference to drug MOA?Edit
Which factors influence dissolution rate?Edit
What are the different categories of solutes and solvents?Edit
Can a reaction happen if the free energy of the process is positive?Edit
Why is the salting in/out phenomenon important to the practitioner?Edit
Why is buffer capacity information as important as the buffer pH?Edit
What factors affect the pH of buffer solutions?Edit
Can you predict the pH of an aqueous solution by knowing the chemical nature of the drug substance?Edit
Study the situations under which an oral solution formulation would be advised/discouragedEdit
Formulation additives (what and why)Edit
Practical tips on making solutions in the labEdit